Types of Fat
Saturated fats are primarily of animal origin. They are usually solid at room temperature. Trans fatty acids increases low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreases high density lipoprotein (HDL), thus raising the chance to develop heart disease. Likewise, cholesterol is a fat soluble compound manufactured by the liver. It is primarily found in animals and other dietary sources. Increase in its levels is found to be associated with coronary heart diseases.
The quantity of fats in the body is measured by a laboratory test called lipid profile. This test will gauge the levels of triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein. Triglycerides show most of the dietary fat, and they are stored as adipose tissue in the body. VLDL reflects the transport of triglycerides from the liver to the body tissues. Its normal serum level ranges from 51 – 197 mg/dL. HDLs, sometimes referred to as good cholesterol, are proteins found in the plasma that carry fats in the blood towards the tissues or liver for excretion. Lastly, the “bad cholesterol” is the LDL, which is also a plasma protein. Its components include triglycerides, and it functions to carry cholesterol to the cells. The normal level ranges from 35 – 70 mg/dL. Any increase in its level precipitates the risk for cardiac diseases. In addition, LDL carries cholesterol to arterial wall of the blood vessels. Increased cholesterol deposits in blood vessels can form a plaque, which then results to narrowing of its lumen. It impedes the normal blood flow and may cause an increase in heart’s pumping to allow passage of blood. Blood pressure rises as a result of increasing pressure applied by the blood against the walls of blood vessels. Incidents of heart disease may then occur.
It is important to maintain cholesterol level within normal limits. Proper selection of foods can be a big help. One should limit intake of unhealthy fats – trans fats like snack and fried foods, as well as bakery goods, saturated fats from animal sources, and cholesterol such as eggs, seafood, and meats.]]>
The way the mind works when a regular adult wanders is like this. They use their short term memory and their long term memory to locate prominent location, buildings etc. They have a keen sense of time and speed which they use to judge distance. Lastly, they have a strong and keen visual-spatial sense that tells them of direction angles and the approximate time between each landmark.
These three functions are not available to an Alzheimer’s patient. So, when he or she wander, it can become very dangerous. Consequences have proven to be as fatal as death. This can prove to be very tragic for the loved one also. The dangers of getting lost and not knowing where he or she is are great.
The reasons that Alzheimer’s patients wander are quite wide ranged. They either are searching for something – a lot of times a little peace away from the noise. Many people still think they are fully functional working professionals and try to go about their day as if it was a regular work day. Sometimes these people just want to look for a place, a thought, a person, an old memory among other things. In this particular case, it is suggested that a photo album be shown to that person, which will help them remember.
There are certain things that the person taking care of the Alzheimer’s patient can do to prevent him or her from wandering and getting themselves in danger. Put locks on al the doors and the windows. Don’t leave any possible corner or floor unlocked. Even the upper floors if there are. Then you could install alarms at all points of exit. You can also put up fences and gates. While it restricts them to the premises, it also gives them a sense of security.
Just so that they are found and brought back home safe and sound, they can be given an ID card or a bracelet that tells someone where home is for them. If you do go ahead with the bracelet idea, put the bracelet on the stronger hand. Dress them in colored clothes so that they can be noticeable. Never leave them alone in the car nor should you leave them alone at home. If you ask your neighbor to keep an eye on him or her, I’m sure they wouldn’t mind. Either you must see to it that there is someone there to always be there and help the person when they need assistance.]]>
The reactions of an Alzheimer’s patient is not regular and expected. One very good example is that if the patient is among unfamiliar situations and people, he tends to react in a very awkward way. They tend to distrust and dislike who they don’t know and start hallucinating. It might take him further away from any person to person interaction, make a lot more closed to the world and make him a very easily angered person.
When the person is prone to be taken soon and deemed incapable of regular behavior and thinking, he should be encouraged and led to take care of legal matters and consent where required for treatment. These are called the Advanced Directives. A will too could be written lest the person’s condition later shouldn’t allow it.
If the patient is not diagnosed and Alzheimer’s disease hits before it is too late, the family must get him or her checked taken care of. Once analyzed and if diagnosed, arrangements must be made to provide for the long term taking care of the patient which must involve an in house care taker – family member or hired help.
Alzheimer’s becomes worse over time causing for the patient to be extremely violent because they lose their control over their mind and actions. To control these sudden outbursts, there is medication to calm the person down. This enables people who have it bad to be a lot more sociable and interactive with people. The more into the disease, the more difficult it is to deal with an Alzheimer’s patient.
While a care taker deals with the difficulty, there are certain things that they can do to better the case of the person and maintain their sanity. They must learn that they must not try and change the patient rather they must let them be themselves. Give them what they need in terms of the living conditions, surroundings, quietness etc. Don’t confuse them. Don’t ask them questions that they have to strain their brain over. Involve them in activities that use their mind. Ask them questions about their family and loved ones.]]>
The cause of dementia is the infection of the sections of the human brain that allow for the making of decisions, memory, language and learning. One of the most common causes of it is Alzheimer’s disease. Six out of every 10 patients of dementia are patients of Alzheimer’s disease. Patients of dementia get irritated very fast, are easily confusable, very aggressive and suffer from long term memory loss. This ultimately leads to disability in the body and then finally death of the patient,
Human brains just like the body also age. We can observe these things when we get older as we think much slower and remember with far greater difficulty. This increases with the years. But if these symptoms increase faster than they should, then there is a certain abnormality in our brain which needs to be looked at.
Other causes of dementia, apart from Alzheimer’s disease, is Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Other diseases that change blood cells (a stroke), alcohol consumption beyond the limit, lots of drug usage, deficiency in nutrients, spinal cord and brain infections (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and AIDS dementia complex), fluid accumulation in the brain or even a head injury.
There are certain things that we know though for sure about Alzheimer’s disease. We know for sure that it is fatal, degenerative and progressive. In America, the figure of patients come up to 5.3 million a figure that makes it the seventh largest disease in the entire nation that kills people. There is no cure yet for the disease yet that the medical world has been able to provide. It is not possible to do a prognosis individually as the disease is known to be too variant to actually monitor and study.
That is because it develops before being known to exist which means it can exist for a long enough time to study it but it is not possible to diagnose it until it shows itself. Even after diagnosis, the average survival time for a patient is seven years which has not been enough to effectively understand the problem. A few people have lived longer than that but that is a mere 3 percent of people who lived for more than 14 years after detection of Alzheimer’s disease.
Despite this failure to find a solution to the problem, the effort is on to provide better services to take care of and cure these patients of Alzheimer’s. Worldwide, the medical community is doing all they can to find these solutions. To make thing better for those who are suffering, the people who take care of people who suffer from Alzheimer’s need to be sensitive to their needs and requirements.]]>
Preliminary tests conducted showed that a vaccine cleared the amyloid but it did not do anything for the dementia. It led to reason to believe that non-plaque Aβ oligomers could be the cause. They stick to surface receptors on neurons which results in a change of the structure of the synapse eventually disturbing neuronal communication.
As of 2009, it was found out that a relative of the beta-amyloid protein was behind the occurrence of the disease. The latest was that an amyloid-related mechanism cuts neuronal connections inside the brain during the fast growth phases of early life. This is triggered by process that are related to aging during the later years of life which causes the eventual neuronal breaking down which is Alzheimer’s Disease.
N-APP starts the process by sticking onto a neuronal receptor named death receptor 6 (DR6 or TNFRSF21). It is a fragment of APP which is in the N-terminus of the peptide. Adjacent to beta-amyloid and is cleaved by one of the enzymes of the same family. The areas of the human brain that go bad due to Alzheimer’s Disease has a high concentration of this. This leads to the possibility that the N-APP/DR6 pathway gets strangled in the brain that is growing old hence causing the disease.
Alzheimer’s has its risk factors.
The risk factors of Alzheimer’s have been well researched and studied with detailed information about the chances it has to affect someone. The risk of getting Alzheimer’s gets bigger with age. To be exact between 65 and 85, every 5.5 years the chance of someone contracting Alzheimer’s Disease doubles. At the age of 70, there is a maximum chance of 2 per cent risk of getting it while at 85 there is a 40 per cent chance of getting it. Women as opposed to men have a higher chance of getting the disease. Among the combined group, people with many head injuries are majorly prone to it. Genetic factors come in the age bracket before 65 have a less than 1 per cent of ever falling prey to it.
In the lower age bracket of between 30 and 49, those who have Down Syndrome are prone to get Alzheimer’s Disease. Other factors include bad education level, high blood pressure and even high cholesterol. Exposure to material like aluminum also play a role research has shown.]]>
How does one recognize agitation behavior? It manifests itself as inappropriate spoken and sometimes physical action which many not necessarily be seemingly violent. The more calm kind usually consists of continuous nonsensical talk and shouting, also including restlessness, constantly doing the same action over and over again and showcasing fear in their actions. The violent behavior normally has one hear vulgar words being spoken, kicking, hitting and scratching. The sex of the patient largely determines the kind of reaction. Women are half as violent as men, research has shown.
Some people who care for one who is a patient of Alzheimer’s Disease tend to simply ignore the fact that they easily tend to show agitation behavior which is very detrimental to the improvement of the patient and also on the future health condition of the one who cares for the person. It has been seen in many cases that as a result of the ignorance of such behavior, the person would have to be given medical care – most times having to be admitted to hospital. General quality of life too has been shown to decrease for both patient and care taker.
Here are a few tips that the care taker can use. Identify the reason for the behavior. It could be in response to something done, totally unprovoked or repeated. The most formula that one can use is to change the surroundings, change the behavior and only if have to administer medication. To do that, you can start with changing the troubling factors (whatever troubles the patient).
The tiredness during the latter part of the day builds on the stress and triggers such reactions. If this is observed, it is most probably tiredness. Quietness and rest helps at these times. Have them exercise the bodies and don’t even think of giving them caffeine. If this is made regular, it reduces stress by a great deal. A crowd (which may be standing or moving images of people also) can raise the stress levels. If medication succeeds these factors, they are not as ineffective.
An important factor is that no “talking to” will ever help but will only worsen the condition. The patient has effectively lost all mental ability to think for his or her self. Additional health issues cause the patient even more trauma. To help this, right fluid and food intake and prescribed medication go a long way. Never lock the patient up if he doesn’t stay put. Find something that he can do to keep busy to take distract his attention.
A rise in sexual needs may very well be truly what they seem and an expert needs to be asked about it. Medications don’t take away the problem but there are various things that only experts must do. Music helps the patient relax very well.]]>
In particular, here are some rules you could follow. Curd made at home, green leafy vegetables, whole grain food (cereal and bread), fruits and squash make ideal choices for what to put on your plate. What is not in is salt, red meat, chocolate, hamburgers and aerated drinks. Thiamime has chances of doing a whole lot of good to bringing the mind back closer to a more active state of mind. Magnesium is very vital for brain functioning. A less amount of it causes the neurons in the brain to get overexcited. Vitamins wise, most over 65 patients had gross deficiency of the vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C.
Not only is the food important, so is the eating surroundings. The patient must have absolutely minimal distraction while eating. He must be able to stay focused on his food intake, which is why. He must chew everything well and eat them on small pieces – not stuff his mouth away.
Keeping the patients mouth wet is very important because our bodies signal us less when it is wet. Even otherwise medication tends to dry the mouth, so drinking water constantly is very important. 8 – 10 cups of water a day should do the trick. In case you are unable to administer yourself fluids, then dip a snack like bread or biscuits in water and eat it. Drinking semi waterish fluids also help. Try coffee, tea or milk if water cannot be drunk. Food wet with gravy, sauce etc. also do the trick. Sucking on candy or fruit ice keeps the taste and the wetness. Whatever you do – do not use commercial face wash because the alcohol will make your mouth dry.
Another issue that needs to be addressed is the effect of malnutrition or weight maintenance. In order to stay fit, the patient must be given food in smaller amounts more frequently, must be given a vitamin or a mineral tablet once every day and must have a regular liquid diet supplement. But before you implement these you must ask your doctor if these and what else also must be done.]]>
The huge number of cases that may be considered for study are quite spread out in the sense that all of them are not known to genetically inherited. A mere 0.1 per cent of these cases are there because of familial forms of autosomal-dominant inheritance – something that sets in before 65 years of age.
Cases of Alzheimer’s disease caused by autosomal-dominant inheritance can be traced to three root causes – amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilins 1 or presenilins 2. All these three contribute to an increase in the manufacture of Aβ42 which is the main constituent of senile plates. Some mutations only change the Aβ40 levels thus increasing the difference between its levels and the Aβ42 levels. This will lead to the disease caused even if the amount of Aβ produced is lessened. This also shows that presenilin has a further role to play in the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease apart from just contributing to the production of Aβ – this in cases like changes in the role of APP and its other fragments.
A large number of cases though of Alzheimer’s disease do not have autosomal-dominant inheritance causes. They are called sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Despite this, genetic factors do have a strong influence on them as risk factors. One of the best examples is ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE). The number of patients with APOE allele is anywhere between 40 and 80 percent. This makes the chances of disease attacking heterozygotes thrice more and five times that much in homozygotes.
It is also in unanimous agreement that researchers say that there are other genes that actually protect the body from Alzheimer’s disease. There are genes – 400 in number – that have proved to have no effect at all when associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.
So finally in conclusion we can say that if Alzheimer’s disease is seen early and is seen frequently enough in a family that it can be easily given the tag: Early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease. Some researchers are of the opinion that the gene solution to Alzheimer’s disease is over while some still think that there are a lot more to be found. But one of the problems that a solution has to be found for is the manner by which nerves convert sugar (glucose) and make it energy. The whole process is called glucose metabolism.This among other conditions that ought to exist alongside Alzheimer’s disease]]>
1) Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease
2) Late-Onset Alzheimer’s disease
3) Familial Alzheimer’s disease
Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease: A rare form of the disease, it has hit less than one tenth of all Alzheimer’s patients. People who get Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease are diagnosed always before the age of 65. When this is diagnosed at a younger age, the patient tends to have the brain abnormalities that lead to it. The cause is largely genetic with chromosome 14 being the root of the problem. Myoclonus is one of the symptoms of this form of Alzheimer’s disease.
It is basically the result of the mutation of three genes – presenilin 1, presenilin 2 and amyloid precursor protein. Research has shown that they are of no danger at all when separate but are the source of the disease unlike when together. People who suffer from this form of the disease are the kind who find it difficult it to do the simplest of things, go through many number of personality changes, who can’t really remember much – short and long term and who get very easily confused.
Be on the lookout for muscle twitching and also for spasms as they are early sign of Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease.
Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease: The most found form of Alzheimer’s disease, it accounts for accounting for about 90% of Alzheimer’s. These cases are distinctly occurring post 65 years of age. It is there in almost all people who crossed the age of 85. This kind of Alzheimer’s is not necessarily and may or may not be hereditary. It is also called sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.
Sadly, research has not been fruitful to determine the one single reason for the occurrence of Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. The closest that researchers have to come to a solution is that the risk factor is gene dominated. The Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) works for and against Late-onset Alzheimer’s. The gene’s e4 type plays a larger role in causing for it while the e2 type plays one working against it. At the end of the day, the presence of this gene indicates danger of getting the disease. The effect of the gene can be lessened by use and presence of toxins, changing of the environment and adopting the right lifestyle in order to do so.
Familial Alzheimer’s disease(FAD): It is an inherited form of Alzheimer’s disease that is completely genetical. In families that have been hit by FAD, two members have been affected by default. The exact problem with the genes is that a genetic fault is passed down the family in certain particular chromosomes. Studies have showed that to be 21, 14 or 1.
It is very uncommon making up less than one per cent of the cases of Alzheimer’s disease. It can kick in as early as the 30’s and the 40’s in this case.
To prevent it means to make an effort to avoid its occurrence. Tests conducted have shown that there are factors which actually can bring Alzheimer’s later than it would otherwise come or that can absolutely prevent it from happening. There other similar ways and means that are also being researched to see if they work. All of these confirmed and presently being researched methods are confined to dementia that come as a result of only Alzheimer’s dementia though. There has been no head way into ways to do the same for other forms of dementia.
One researched method is the lessening of homocysteine in the body. The study showed that amino acid homocysteine resulted in an increase of the chances of getting Alzheimer’s dementia by 2.8 times and vascular dementia by 4.9 times. To do this, the method that worked the best was to administer large amounts of three kinds of B vitamins to the patients – folic acid, B12 and B6. It resulted in a slow but yet some falling back of the Alzheimer’s dementia. Since the results have been more positive, researchers have been testing the method on more people.
Bringing down cholesterol levels has also proved to work as studies have shown that high cholesterol levels do indeed affect the occurrence of dementia. It is one of the factors of the process that forms amyloid plaques in the brain. Lowering blood pressure also has worked showing a 55 per cent decrease in the risk of dementia once past the age of 60 in people who underwent treatment for hypertension.
Exercise is one thing that can bring it down that we can literally get up and do by ourselves. The result is in the release of chemicals that allow neurons to adapt to new environments. Another interesting thing is the fact that if you know less about it will be less likely to occur to you. Knowledge about it makes the brain bring about nerve cell networks that only make right the cell damage done by Alzheimer’s dementia.
The overall moral of the story is at the end of day, dementia is the loss of mental function. So, if you keep your mind and body active, rejuvenated and healthy then you will most probably not fall victim to it. Any sort of activity that exercises these two will do for this to happen. A study done on 469 people on 75 people confirmed this.]]>